Know yourself!
God created Man in his own image,
Water is the element and this is the origin....
War is the father of all things.
He didn't' want to seem best,but to be so.
Seeing the high Gods by her beauty's lure
There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.
...until political greatness and wisdom meet in one,
It follows that the state belongs to the class of objects
One's country is wherever one does well.
...that devil, envy did all the mischief,which the bad bear unto the good,
But if one should guide his life by true principles,
Give me chastity and continence, but not just now.
Ah God! Had I but studied in the days of my foolish youth.
If all evil were prevented, much good would be
Man was created by nature in such a way that reason might dominate the senses
...how we live is so far removed from how we ought to live,
...a kingdom is best entrusted to someone who is better endowed than the rest
In a state of nature we have....no arts, no letters, no society,
I think, therefore I am.
The only possible fence against the world is a thorough knowledge of it.
He whose honor depends on the opinion of the mob
Legislation considers man as he is in order to turn him to good uses in human society. Out of
to "live in Ease, Without great Vices, is a vain
It is fortunate for men to be in a situation in which,
That action is best, which procures the greatest happiness
All is for the best in the best of possible worlds.
How small - of all that human hearts endure - that part which laws or kings can cause or cure.
Man is born free, and everywhere he is in fetters.
It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner,
Out of timber so crooked as that from which man is made nothing entirely straight can be built.
I offer you "...this picture of the human species, liberated from all chains, freed from the empire
...the age of chivalry is gone. -That of sophisters, economists, and calculators, has succeeded;
And yet all grandeur, all power, all subordination rests on the executioner;
The principal object of the present essay is to examine the effects of one great cause.
But even as we contemplate history as this butcher-block,
One has attributed to history the task, to judge the past, and to instruct the present to the benefi
Human societies are at the same time organisms and mechanisms.
It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied;
Nothing is easier than to admit in words the truth of the universal struggle for life,
...the theory of the Communists may be summed up in a single sentence:Abolition of private property
Life is essentially appropriation, injury, overpowering of the weaker, suppression, hardness
Society is a reality sui generis; it has its own characteristics which one does not find,
The characteristic of the moment is that the mediocre mind,
...behold the bustling crowds that work and trade in order to make a living..."
And it's not clear to me Who is a beast now, who is a man.
Whereof one cannot speak,thereof one must be silent.
The Human Genome Project "is the grail of human genetics... the ultimate answer to the commandment,
History is a violent elimination game, minimizing A/P.
If there is one of you who has not sinned, let him be the first to throw a stone at her.
In short, there are three things that last, faith, hope and love;

That action is best, which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest number; and that is worst, which, in like manner, occasions misery.

NameFrancis Hutcheson
Life1694 - 1746
Amongst philosophers the will to gain monotheistic power is also a sickness. The Enlightenment of the 18th century is, to a large extent, an exercise of this desire to find one big rule for all human activity, one universal solution to all our woes. Mirandola's belief in "reason's" ability to moderate human emotions had taken hold of the so-called intellectuals. They were the first group of government "consultants", trying to sell their own big rational rule to kings and emperors. One such rule was formulated by a then famous, now almost forgotten, moral philosopher and great teacher, Francis Hutcheson. His most famous pupil was Adam Smith, author of the Bible of the believers in the market religion. The one big rule that should guide all your actions, said Hutcheson, is that it should create "the greatest happiness for the greatest number". This is the idea of "utilitarianism", later worked out by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill and today an academic industry. Even in the excellent catalogue of the most influential books in the Western world, Printing and the Mind of Man, it is written that "only Bentham could have summed it up in the succinct aphorism 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number'". Well,
not only Bentham, for he only copied Hutcheson! History is evolutionary competition, sorting winners and losers. By necessity this means that what gives "happiness" to one person often gives misery to his fiend or competitor. One rule rarely applies to both. Irrational emotions still rule. Besides, what is happiness? Isn't it true that when stomachs are filled, men can kill each other because of different definitions of that word? In spite of this, utilitarianism, the idea that we should maximize utility or pleasure, as it can to lead to happiness, has been the basic philosophy of the Western world for some 200 years. In the capitalist parts of the world, the stress has been on "the greatest amount", in parts of the world that have been socialist, on "for the greatest number". But behind both, we find the questionable idea that wealth gives happiness. Mankind has discussed similar ideas since the Greek "sophrosyne". But has all this talk had any positive effects whatsoever? Remember the monozygotic twin study that was mentioned in the context of Cicero, on page 00. Certainly, we are now infinitely richer from a material point of view than 200 years ago. But are we infinitely more happy, or more happy at all?


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