Know yourself!
God created Man in his own image,
Water is the element and this is the origin....
War is the father of all things.
He didn't' want to seem best,but to be so.
Seeing the high Gods by her beauty's lure
There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.
...until political greatness and wisdom meet in one,
It follows that the state belongs to the class of objects
One's country is wherever one does well.
...that devil, envy did all the mischief,which the bad bear unto the good,
But if one should guide his life by true principles,
Give me chastity and continence, but not just now.
Ah God! Had I but studied in the days of my foolish youth.
If all evil were prevented, much good would be
Man was created by nature in such a way that reason might dominate the senses
...how we live is so far removed from how we ought to live,
...a kingdom is best entrusted to someone who is better endowed than the rest
In a state of nature we have....no arts, no letters, no society,
I think, therefore I am.
The only possible fence against the world is a thorough knowledge of it.
He whose honor depends on the opinion of the mob
Legislation considers man as he is in order to turn him to good uses in human society. Out of
to "live in Ease, Without great Vices, is a vain
It is fortunate for men to be in a situation in which,
That action is best, which procures the greatest happiness
All is for the best in the best of possible worlds.
How small - of all that human hearts endure - that part which laws or kings can cause or cure.
Man is born free, and everywhere he is in fetters.
It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner,
Out of timber so crooked as that from which man is made nothing entirely straight can be built.
I offer you "...this picture of the human species, liberated from all chains, freed from the empire
...the age of chivalry is gone. -That of sophisters, economists, and calculators, has succeeded;
And yet all grandeur, all power, all subordination rests on the executioner;
The principal object of the present essay is to examine the effects of one great cause.
But even as we contemplate history as this butcher-block,
One has attributed to history the task, to judge the past, and to instruct the present to the benefi
Human societies are at the same time organisms and mechanisms.
It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied;
Nothing is easier than to admit in words the truth of the universal struggle for life,
...the theory of the Communists may be summed up in a single sentence:Abolition of private property
Life is essentially appropriation, injury, overpowering of the weaker, suppression, hardness
Society is a reality sui generis; it has its own characteristics which one does not find,
The characteristic of the moment is that the mediocre mind,
...behold the bustling crowds that work and trade in order to make a living..."
And it's not clear to me Who is a beast now, who is a man.
Whereof one cannot speak,thereof one must be silent.
The Human Genome Project "is the grail of human genetics... the ultimate answer to the commandment,
History is a violent elimination game, minimizing A/P.
If there is one of you who has not sinned, let him be the first to throw a stone at her.
In short, there are three things that last, faith, hope and love;

And yet all grandeur, all power, all subordination rests on the executioner; he is the horror and the bond of human association. Remove this incomprehensible agent from the world, and at that very moment order gives way to chaos, thrones topple, and society disappears.

NameJoseph Marie de Maistre
Life1753 - 1821
The most notoriously exaggerated of all cruel social philosophers is Joseph de Maistre. He drives conservative realism into what many consider "absurdum". Is it so? The world often moves "dialectically" from extreme to extreme. de Maistre's near worship of the public executioner is a reaction to the mob horrors of the French Revolution. He himself had been exiled to Aosta, to Geneva, to Lausanne, to Turin, to Venice and to Cagliari on Sardinia. There he was made the ambassador of king Victor Emmanuel I, king of Sardinia, from 1803-1817, to a Russia in which the members of the arrogant upper class discussed how to keep some order in the potentially revolutionary masses. "I don't hate anything but hate", is also a saying of de Maistre. He did not hate the masses. He thought the executioner was most unfortunate, but unavoidable if order was to be maintained. Already a generation earlier, the great Italian jurist, Cesare Beccaria, had published a book on the death penalty. This inhuman punishment, he had shown, had surprisingly little effect in preventing crime. de Maistre and his circle evidently did not believe in it. Considering the brutal aspects of the human condition and the horrors of the past revolution, they put their trust for a stable society in the public executioner. Does such brutality help? Or does it simply continue jus talionis, the Jewish law of retaliation, in eternity? A few years after Joseph de Maistre's Soirées de Saint-Pétersbourg, Nicholas I came to power in Russia. He might have been educated with the content of these evening talks. He became the Stalin of the 19th century, cruelly preparing Russia's next dialectical step, Lenin's coup d'état of 1917. In spite of the fact that a democratic
majority in several West European nations would vote for capital punishment, our legislators have abolished it. We consider that to be a most important part of the West European civilization. Europe, however, still rests upon the power of the United States. The United States is a rather new nation. It was built upon the killing of the red Indians and on the Negro slavery. It admits about one million new immigrants per year into its "melting pot". It is a violent nation; some 25.000 are shot to death every year. To keep down violence and to prevent hate from turning into group violence and revolutionary parties, punishments are harsh; some two million citizens are imprisoned. And the capital punishment remains. Might that what is true for individuals also be true for states? A leading American defense expert can, for instance, in the context of atomic missiles and related gadgets, write the following words: "America should deter all means of delivery by making clear that those using such weapons would be obliterated." If the United States cannot maintain internal order without the death penalty, if Europe cannot keep down dictators of various sorts without the help of the United States, and if world order largely rests upon the American-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization, as it surely does, can we really say that de Maistre is wrong when he would believe that if the USA got rid of its executioner our Western social order would give way to chaos? Is order maintained by executing individuals and "obliterating" societies? However hateful the question is: does the world order rest upon the American executioner?


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