Know yourself!
God created Man in his own image,
Water is the element and this is the origin....
War is the father of all things.
He didn't' want to seem best,but to be so.
Seeing the high Gods by her beauty's lure
There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.
...until political greatness and wisdom meet in one,
It follows that the state belongs to the class of objects
One's country is wherever one does well.
...that devil, envy did all the mischief,which the bad bear unto the good,
But if one should guide his life by true principles,
Give me chastity and continence, but not just now.
Ah God! Had I but studied in the days of my foolish youth.
If all evil were prevented, much good would be
Man was created by nature in such a way that reason might dominate the senses
...how we live is so far removed from how we ought to live,
...a kingdom is best entrusted to someone who is better endowed than the rest
In a state of nature we have....no arts, no letters, no society,
I think, therefore I am.
The only possible fence against the world is a thorough knowledge of it.
He whose honor depends on the opinion of the mob
Legislation considers man as he is in order to turn him to good uses in human society. Out of
to "live in Ease, Without great Vices, is a vain
It is fortunate for men to be in a situation in which,
That action is best, which procures the greatest happiness
All is for the best in the best of possible worlds.
How small - of all that human hearts endure - that part which laws or kings can cause or cure.
Man is born free, and everywhere he is in fetters.
It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner,
Out of timber so crooked as that from which man is made nothing entirely straight can be built.
I offer you "...this picture of the human species, liberated from all chains, freed from the empire
...the age of chivalry is gone. -That of sophisters, economists, and calculators, has succeeded;
And yet all grandeur, all power, all subordination rests on the executioner;
The principal object of the present essay is to examine the effects of one great cause.
But even as we contemplate history as this butcher-block,
One has attributed to history the task, to judge the past, and to instruct the present to the benefi
Human societies are at the same time organisms and mechanisms.
It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied;
Nothing is easier than to admit in words the truth of the universal struggle for life,
...the theory of the Communists may be summed up in a single sentence:Abolition of private property
Life is essentially appropriation, injury, overpowering of the weaker, suppression, hardness
Society is a reality sui generis; it has its own characteristics which one does not find,
The characteristic of the moment is that the mediocre mind,
...behold the bustling crowds that work and trade in order to make a living..."
And it's not clear to me Who is a beast now, who is a man.
Whereof one cannot speak,thereof one must be silent.
The Human Genome Project "is the grail of human genetics... the ultimate answer to the commandment,
History is a violent elimination game, minimizing A/P.
If there is one of you who has not sinned, let him be the first to throw a stone at her.
In short, there are three things that last, faith, hope and love;

Human societies are at the same time organisms and mechanisms.

NameAntoine-Augistine Cournot
Life1801 - 1877
God was a great engineer. He constructed the world as a delicate mechanism consisting of many living organisms. Those who see themselves as "constructivists" or "constructionists" try, in such a God-like way, to construct a better society than the one we have. In the last century, this striving resulted in armies of "central planners" in the communist nations, and of "social engineers" in the West. One wanted to make the whole Soviet economy into a huge mechanism, the other to control the free market forces in one direction or another. Both attempts have been in vain, a chasing after wind, to repeat the words of the Ecclesiastes. Thales's inflated bacteria from a drop of water, on the other hand, tend to look upon themselves as small parts of a larger organism or, at least, of something which is very much like a living organism. They consider it too inflated a vanity to think that one single individual will be able to change the conditions of thousands if not millions. Cournot, an engineer turned both historian and economist, tried to see the whole picture of social development. He wrote a book on "the chain of fundamental ideas in science and history", a truly great subject that only crazy charlatans dare tackle today. Cournot's conclusion was that society was at the same time both a mechanism and an organism. How can we understand that? In all generations, the young, hopeful and power-hungry come up with ideas for improving society. They may look upon it as a watch - a common image in social literature - which needs to be made more precise.
Hours are not enough. We want to measure minutes, seconds and nanoseconds, as well. We want to plan not only for families, but for mothers, children and, now, embryos, too. Social engineers and ambitious bureaucrats are never satisfied; however much they have already tried to adjust the social mechanism, they want to regulate more. When does a mechanism turn into an organism? Cournot was his time's leading expert on economic monopolies. He looked upon the winners in the economic race. Who were these winners? One likely answer may be that they are those social mechanisms which come closest to functioning like a living, healthy organism, in which all the cells cooperate in a perfect way. In such an organism, the leaders can be seen as the head of a human organism, and the body, his citizens, as his instruments. Or, from the lower perspective, the many parts of the body, in order to become strong and flowering individuals, need a strong leader who can unite them into one well-functioning Superbrain. Head and body need each other. Those mechanisms which have come closest to functioning as organisms are the ones which have survived in history's eternal elimination game. The most important of them are the 200 nations, selected by warfare, that now remain out of the tens of thousands of social mechanisms that once existed. That organism is a winner in which leaders and followers, mainly by peaceful and harmonious co-operation or "co-thinking", have united into a Superbrain that functions better than its nearest challenger. That is, at least, how I want to understand Cournot and his follower, Durkheim.


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